Ketamine Facts and Effects

Wednesday, August 15, 2012

Ketamine Facts and Effects, Ketamine is an anesthetic agent to act in one direction which means the effect will disappear when the drug analgesic has been detoxicated/ excreted, thereby discharging the long term use should be avoided.

Beside as an anesthetic, Ketamine has some effects such as:

a. Analgesia

Analgesia is a very strong, so even if the patient is conscious, there analgesic effect. The pain is pain which is mainly inhibited somatic, visceral pain analgesic for almost nothing so it is not effective for the operation of the visceral organs. Visceral analgesia in children well enough so that it can be used for operations such as hernia or kidney stones, despite stimulation of the peritoneum.

Good for analgesia in infants / children without causing hypnotic effects - sedation (using subdose 2.5 mg, IM)

b. Relaxation

Anesthetic has no power muscle relaxant, sometimes even accompanied by increased muscle tone movements that are not controlled, so that ketamine is not very good when used as single drug, such as intra-abdominal surgery and other operations that require silent sufferers.

c. Hypnotic

Anesthesia is often used for induction and was followed by administering ether or N2O. In sleep can occur spontaneous movements of the arms, legs, lips, mouth and even to speak, even though the dose is increased to a dose of depressing breathing. Because it raises nistgmus anesthetic, it can not be used for eye surgery, especially strabismus.

d. Dissociative anesthetics

Anesthesia using ketamine causes dissociation because these drugs affect the association in the cerebral cortex.

Excitation can occur in the administration of ketamine (such as nightmares), its prevention with drug tranquilizers. Ketamine also affects mental disorders and symptoms after seizures while awake in anesthesia. This effect can be prevented by giving valium.

e. Circulation

Ketamine stimulates the release of catecholamines from andogen with an increase in pulse rate, blood pressure and cardiac output. Therefore, the effect is beneficial for anesthesia in patients with shock / shock. (2)

f. Breathing

Respiratory depression was very small and only temporary unless the dose is too large and the presence of depressant drugs as premedication. Ketamine causes dilatation of bronchi and antagonistic to the effects of contraction of bronchi by histamine. Good for people with asthma and to reduce the spasm of the bronchi in mild general anesthesia.

g. Cardiovascular

Blood pressure to rise both systole and diastole. Average increase of between 20-25% of blood pressure initially, reaches a maximum several minutes after the injection and will fall back in 15 minutes later. The pulse rate also increased. (1, 3, 4, 5)

h. Other effects

Ketamine can increase blood sugar 15% of the normal state, although such is not an absolute contraindication for patients with DM. Ketamine can also cause hypersalivation, but this effect can be reduced by giving anticholinergic premedication.

Blood flow to the brain, intrakaranial pressure and pressure rise in intra-ocular administration of ketamine. Because it should not be used in surgical patients with increased intracranial pressure (cerebral edema, intracranial tumors) and patients on eye surgery.

That was several Ketamine Effects, and do you know that from the research which is still being developed, it turns out that Ketamine effect of treatment for depression is very promising. Provision of ketamine in depressed patients who have developed resistance to all kinds of antidepressant, it gives real results in just a few hours after being given ketamine. And the effect is still remain until ten working days.