Chicken Pox Signs, Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Friday, September 7, 2012

Chicken Pox (Varicella, Chickenpox) is a contagious viral infection that often arise and cause a skin rash in the form of a set of small spots are flat or protruding, fluid-filled blisters and scabs, which cause itching.Chicken Pox Causes

The reason is the varicella-zoster virus.
The virus is transmitted through saliva splashes patient or through objects contaminated by fluid from skin blisters.

Patients can transmit the disease from onset of symptoms until the last blisters have dried up. Therefore, to prevent infection, the patient should be isolated (sequestered).

If someone has had chickenpox, then he will have immunity and will not suffer from chicken pox again. But the virus can remain dormant in the human body, and sometimes becomes active again and cause shingles.

Chicken Pox Signs

Symptoms begin to appear (incubation period) within 10-21 days after infection. Usually the patient has been infected with the virus for more than 48 hours before symptoms appear.

In children older than 10 years, the initial symptoms of headache, fever moderate malaise, decreased appetite. Symptoms are usually not found in children who are younger, symptoms are usually more severe in adults.

24-36 hours after the onset of initial symptoms, appear flat red spots (macula). Then the prominent spots (papules), forming a fluid-filled blisters (vesicles) with itching, which will eventually dry up. This process takes about 6-8 hours. Next will form spots and the new blisters.

On the fifth day, usually have no new blisters form again, all the blisters will dry on the sixth day and disappear in less than 20 days.

Papules on the face, arms and legs are relatively few, usually are found on the upper torso (chest, back, shoulders). The spots are often found on the scalp.

Papules in the mouth quickly rupture and form open sores (ulcers), which often causes swallowing disorders. Ulcers can also be found on the eyelids, upper respiratory tract, rectum and vagina. Papules on the vocal cords and upper respiratory tract sometimes causing respiratory problems.

Could happen swelling lymph nodes in the neck side.

Chickenpox rarely causes the formation of scar tissue, if any, only a small indentation around the eyes. Chickenpox sores can become infected due to scratching and is usually caused by staphylococci.

Chicken Pox Treatment

Treatment is usually given in the form of supportive treatment / symptomatic and maintain good hygiene to avoid secondary infection.

In school-age children should be rested first home, to prevent transmission to friends at school. And may go back if scab was dry and his fever had gone down.

Can be used antipyretic medicine to reduce fever, but should avoid using aspirin, as it can cause Reye's syndrome.

To reduce itching and prevent scratching, the skin should be cold compressed. Can also be applied calamine lotions, antihistamines or other lotions containing menthol or phenol

To reduce the risk of bacterial infection, you should:

  1. Skin washed frequently with soap and water
  2. Hand hygiene
  3. Nails cut shortClothes stay dry and clean.
  4. Sometimes given medicine to reduce itching (an antihistamine).
  5. If there is a bacterial infection, antibiotics are given.
  6. If the case is severe, can be given anti-viral drug acyclovir.
Anti-viral medicine may be given to children over the age of 2 years. Acyclovir is usually given to youth, because adolescents are more severe disease. Asikloir can reduce the severity of illness if given within 24 hours after the first appearance of the rash.

Other alternative medicine are: Famciclovir, valacyclovir, and interferon vidarabin

Complication of Chicken Pox in Children

Children usually recover from chickenpox without problems. But in adults and people with impaired immune systems, these infections may be severe or even fatal.

The complications that can be found in chicken pox are:

  1. Pneumoniakarena virus
  2. inflammation of the heart
  3. inflammation of joints
  4. inflammation of the liver
  5. Encephalitis (brain infection)
  6. Reye syndrome
  7. purpura
  8. Bacterial infections (erysipelas, pyoderma, bullous impetigo).

Diagnosis is based on typical skin rash (macules, papules, vesicles and scab).


Examination of leukocytes usually mennjukkan results normal, low, or increased slightly. Multinucleated giant cells on Tzanck smear examination of skin blisters. Positive results on the examination of tissue culture.


To prevent chickenpox given a vaccine. To those who have never been vaccinated against chickenpox and have a high risk of experiencing complications (eg patients with disorders of the immune system), can be given immunoglobulin zoster or varicella-zoster immunoglobulin. Varicella vaccine is usually given to children aged 12-18 months.

Beware the Chicken Pox Disease especially for your Childrens. See also Hantavirus Symptoms and Orthorexia Nervosa Symptoms in PleaseDoctor archives.